银行的起源

  • 圣殿骑士团&圣殿教堂–“伦敦第一家银行”。圣殿骑士团,正式全名为“基督和所罗门圣殿的贫苦骑士团”,中世纪天主教的军事组织,为了筹组十字军而建立的军事修士会,创立于第一次十字军东征(1096-1099)之后,主要由法国骑士组成。1129年,圣殿骑士团得到罗马教廷正式支持,拥有诸多特权,遂迅速增长其规模、势力和财富,甚至发展出最早的银行业。1291年,圣地陷落,他们失去根据地,最终沦为法王腓力四世为解决财务问题的牺牲品。1307年,其众多成员在法国被捕,残酷审讯后以异端罪名处以火刑。1312年,身处亚维农教廷的教宗克雷芒五世被腓力四世施压,宣布解散圣殿骑士团。
  • 中国历史上早期的汇兑业务”飞钱”,出现于唐代中期(唐宪宗年间)
  • 14世纪里昂交易所的建立,开始了国际性的大宗资本的交易运作,其鼎盛时期是1510–1580年。随着里昂交易所的发展,它逐渐由商品交易转到货币交易。这个时期许多佛罗伦萨和南德的大商人在里昂定居,从事商务和金融交易。
  • So I can hear these [ethereal]{缥缈的} voices coming from inside the temple.

  • I imagine this is a [concert]{音乐会} they’re [rehearsing]{排演}.

  • There’s a beautiful door in front of me, a [wrought]{精细的} [ironwork]{铁制品} on it, a [knocker]{门环} and above me a [column]{圆柱}, and on the top of it is a statue - metal statue - of two nights sharing a single horse

  • But these knights belong to a [medieval]{中世纪的} order that you’ve probably heard of - [the Knights Templar]{圣殿骑士团}.

  • Except that they were in a [Dan Brown]{丹.布朗《达芬奇密码》} book, right?

  • There’s some sort of [conspiracy]{阴谋}, I’m sure of it.

  • It’s not just an [architectural]{建筑学的} site.

  • It’s a story of bloodshed, world [domination]{控制,支配} and accounting, lots and lots of accounting.

  • The Knights Templar were [warrior monks]{武士僧侣}, a religious order with a [theologically]{神学的} inspired [hierarchy]{等级制度}, [mission statement]{使命宣言} and [code of ethics]{道德准则}.

  • The Templars dedicated themselves to the defense of Christian [pilgrims]{朝圣者} to [Jerusalem]{耶路撒冷}. Jerusalem had been [captured]{占领} by the First [Crusade]{十字军东侵} in 1099, and pilgrims began to stream in, traveling thousands of miles across Europe.

  • You need to somehow fund months of food and transport and [accommodation]{住处}, yet you also want to avoid carrying huge sums of cash around because that makes you a target for robbers.

  • The Knights Templar were the [Western Union]{西联汇款} of the Crusades.

  • Was there a secret code [verifying]{核实} the document and the identity of the traveler?

  • But that wouldn’t be the only mystery to [shroud]{覆盖} the Templars, an organization [sufficiently]{充分的} [steeped in ]{沉浸在..中}legend that Dan Brown set a scene of “The Da Vinci Code” in Temple Church.

  • Several centuries earlier, [Tang Dynasty]{唐朝} China used fei qian, flying money, a two-part document allowing [merchants]{商人} to [deposit]{存款} profits in a regional office and [reclaim]{取回} their cash back in the capital.

  • Templars were much closer to a private bank, [albeit]{虽然} a private bank owned by the pope, [allied]{联合} to kings and princes across Europe and run by a partnership of monks sworn to poverty.

  • They provided a range of [recognizably]{可辨认的} modern financial services.

  • the Templars could [broker]{以中间人等身分安排…} the deal.

  • They were [security]{抵押品} on a loan. That was the Templars operating as a very [high-end]{高档的} [pawn]{典当} broker.

  • The Templars were eventually [disbanded]{解散} in 1312. But then, who was to step into the banking [vacuum]{真空}?

  • All he had was a desk and an [inkstand]{墨水瓶} and he sat there, day after day as the fair continued

  • But to a new international [elite]{精英} of Europe’s great merchant houses, this particular Italian’s activities were perfectly [legitimate]{合法的}.

  • a merchant from Lyon who wanted to buy, say, Florentine wool could go to this banker and borrow something called [a bill of exchange]{汇票}.

  • This [IOU]{白条} wasn’t [denominated]{标价} in the French [livre]{里弗} or the Florentine [lira]{里拉}.

  • a local merchant could not only exchange currencies but also exchange his [creditworthiness]{好信誉} in Lyon for credit worthiness in Florence, a city where nobody had ever heard of him.

  • and she can walk out with [groceries]{杂货}.

  • They were rich and powerful, and they didn’t need the coins [minted]{铸造} by the [sovereign]{君主}.

  • That description [rings true]{听来真实可靠} even today. International banks are locked together in a web of [mutual]{共同的} [obligations]{义务;债务} that [defies]{挑战} understanding or control. They can use their international reach to try to [sidestep]{回避} taxes and [regulations]{条例}.

  • when the banks are [fragile]{易碎的}, the entire monetary system of the world also becomes fragile.

  • Sometimes the approach has been [laissez faire]{自由放任}.

  • Few [regulators]{监管者} have been quite as[ardent]{激烈的} as King Philip IV of France.

  • King Philip launched a [raid]{突袭} on the Paris Temple. Templars were tortured and forced to confess any sin the [Inquisition]{宗教法庭;审讯} could imagine.

  • Jacques de Molay

  • like the [barcode]{条形码}.

  • why did a group of academics start providing management consulting services free in India as part of a [randomized]{随机的}, controlled trial?

Transcript原文

BBC World Service “50 Things That Made The Modern Economy” The Bank,It’s the story of the Knights Templar and London’s first bank.